What is garlic essential oil?
Allicin oil is a light yellow liquid with a strong garlic smell, insoluble in water and partially soluble in ethanol. Although the main components of garlic oil are sulfide compounds, the chemical properties are relatively stable and can withstand 120°C in a non-acidic environment. The above high temperature is not easy to decompose, but if it is exposed to ultraviolet light for a long time, it can induce decomposition. It is obtained by steam distillation of the bulbs of Liliaceae garlic (Allium sativum L.). It is a clear pale yellow to orange-red liquid. And strong irritating odor, like thiols. 1.050～1.0951.550～1.580. The main components are allyl propyl disulfide, diallyl disulfide, diallyl trisulfide, allicin, etc. Mainly produced in Egypt, China and so on. It is mainly used for the preparation of spice seasonings, and also used in medicines such as disinfectants. Garlic oleoresin can be extracted from garlic bulb by organic solvent and used in food industry.
Various volatile sulfur-containing compounds such as propyl propylene disulfide, dipropylene disulfide, dipropylene trisulfide, dipropylene sulfide, and methyl sulfide
Function and use
- Broad-spectrum antibacterial, strong antibacterial power
- Seasoning to attract food and improve feed quality
- Enhance immune function, health care and promote growth
- Improve animal quality
- Detoxification and insect repellent, mildew-proof and fresh-keeping
- Non-toxic, no side effects, no drug residues, no drug resistance.
- Anti-coccidial effect.
- One of the raw materials for TNT explosives
- The natural tonic of the circulatory system in the body – lowers cholesterol and blood lipids, enhances the elasticity of blood vessels, reduces platelet aggregation and promotes blood circulation, and can prevent cardiovascular diseases such as thrombosis and hypertension.
- Prevent colds and apply to cold symptoms such as fever, pain relief, cough, sore throat and nasal congestion.
- Activate the gastrointestinal mucosa, strengthen the stomach and intestines, promote appetite and accelerate digestion.
- It can regulate blood sugar and prevent the onset of diabetes.
- Do not mix with alkaline substances.
- Scaleless fish should be used with caution
The extraction process of garlic oil mainly includes: steam distillation, solvent extraction, supercritical extraction, ultrasonic, microwave-assisted extraction, etc.
The principle is to pass water vapor into an organic substance that is insoluble in water or insoluble in water but has a certain volatility (garlic oil has a certain volatility), so that the organic substance is distilled with water vapor at a temperature below 100 °C. out, and then further separated to obtain a purer substance. The general technological process of this method is: peeling garlic → washing → adding water and smashing → enzymatic hydrolysis → steam distillation → separation of oil and water → garlic oil.
Steam distillation is one of the most commonly used methods because of its simple equipment, low cost and good stability. However, due to the relatively high fermentation and distillation temperature, the activity of alliinase decreased, and allicin was lost, resulting in a lower oil yield. Moreover, the obtained garlic oil has a cooked smell, which is not fresh enough.
Garlic oil is slightly soluble in water and easily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol, benzene, and ether. Using this property, garlic oil can be leached out with organic solvents. There is no obvious difference between the garlic oil obtained by this method and the garlic oil obtained by steam distillation. The choice of organic solvent is the key, and the solvent is required to have good solubility for garlic oil, easy separation after leaching, significant difference in boiling point, and no other bad smells and solvent residues.
Solvent extraction process
The general process of the solvent method is: peeling garlic → washing → mashing → enzymatic hydrolysis → solvent extraction → distillation separation → recovery of solvent → garlic oil.
Supercritical CO2 extraction process
Supercritical CO2 extraction process technology is a new type of extraction and separation technology. This technology utilizes the characteristic that the fluid has abnormal phase equilibrium behavior and transfer performance with the solute to be separated in a certain region near the critical point, and the solubility of the solute changes with pressure and temperature, and fluctuates in a fairly wide range. A technique for solute separation. Because CO2 is non-toxic and cheap, it is often used as an extractant.
CO2 extraction process of garlic oil
The general process of supercritical CO2 extraction of garlic oil is: peeling garlic → washing → smashing → filling extraction column → sealing → supercritical extraction → pressure reduction → garlic oil.
Ultrasound Assisted Extraction
Ultrasonic extraction plays a prominent role in the extraction of active ingredients of natural products. Ultrasound can effectively break the cell boundary layer, increase the diffusion speed, improve the breaking speed, shorten the breaking time, and significantly improve the extraction efficiency. There is no chemical reaction during the extraction process, and the activity of the extracted biologically active substances is not reduced.
Microwave is an electromagnetic wave with a frequency range of 300 MHz to 300 000 MHz. Under the action of microwave electric field, polar molecules continuously change their positive and negative directions at a rate of 2.45 billion times per second, resulting in high-speed collision and friction of molecules. high fever. In order to speed up the leaching speed of allicin and improve the leaching efficiency, many researchers use microwave-assisted extraction, and the results show that the effect is remarkable.
Garlic oil is a broad-spectrum antibacterial substance with various pharmacological functions such as activating cells, promoting energy production, increasing antibacterial and antiviral abilities, accelerating metabolism, and relieving fatigue. Therefore, it has a wide range of applications in many fields.
In terms of medical treatment, allicin can be used to treat infectious diseases, digestive system diseases, oral diseases, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases, etc., and has anti-aging, anti-metal poisoning, anti-cancer and anti-cancer effects.
In terms of breeding, allicin has obvious feeding effect on animals, and has bactericidal and antioxidant effects in the body, and can enhance the immune function of animals. Adding allicin to various animal feeds can increase the feed intake and feed conversion rate of animals, increase the survival rate of animals, reduce the incidence of disease, and improve the meat quality of animal products. It is a very valuable feed additive.
In terms of planting, allicin can be used for the control of crop pests and nematodes. Some companies are optimistic about the development prospects of allicin. In order to facilitate the use and increase the curative effect, they have developed allicin, allicin injection, allicin capsules, allicin effervescent tablets, garlic oil microcapsules, garlic oil aerosol, garlic tincture , garlic liquid, garlic syrup, garlic flakes, garlic enema, garlic injection, etc.
Steam distillation method of extracting garlic oil
What to prepare for extracting garlic oil？
Distilled water, Fe2+, allinase.
Tissue masher, steam distillation device, condenser, oil-water separator, etc.
Method for extracting garlic oil
Raw material → pretreatment → enzymatic hydrolysis → steam distillation → separation of oil and water → garlic oil.
Extraction process of garlic oil
- Raw materials. Choose high-quality garlic that is ripe, free from pests and diseases, and free from mechanical damage
- Pretreatment. Soak the garlic in water, peel off the skin, wash it clean, and then add water to the tissue masher and mash it into a paste.
- Enzymolysis. Enzymatic hydrolysis is the key process to improve the yield of garlic oil. It uses alliase to decompose alliin to produce allicin. For this, the enzyme activator Fe22+ can be added. The enzymatic hydrolysis conditions are: pH=6.5, the enzymatic hydrolysis temperature is granulated at 35 °C, the enzymatic hydrolysis time is 1 h, the material-liquid ratio is 1:3, and the Fe2+ concentration is 10 mmol/L, and the yield is high. The extraction effect has a significant effect, while the effect of solid-liquid ratio, enzymatic hydrolysis time and pH is not significant.
- Steam distillation. Put the mashed garlic pulp into the distillation device, and add water in the proportion of 3.5~4.5L of 1kg garlic and water. Then directly heated with steam, the garlic oil is continuously distilled with water vapor, and the distilled liquid is cooled by a water condenser.
- Separation of oil and water. After the distilled liquid is cooled by the condenser, the garlic oil (allicin) is separated through the water-oil separator, and the water still flows into the tank to maintain a constant water balance. After distillation and separation, garlic oil is obtained, and the yield is between 0.2% and 0.3% (0.1% to 0.2% without enzymatic hydrolysis).